Livestock production industries especially chicken sector has been developed strongly thanks to large scale poultry farming industry having applied advanced technique and systematic procedures in the recent years. In spite of rapidly grow, chicken production in Viet Nam is facing many obstacles and challenges.
Farmers are facing with the continuously increasing of feed ingredients’ prices, whereas chicken meat and egg selling prices are decreasing. These problems have put high pressure on farmers’ benefits and effectiveness. In view of the above, cutting feed costs while ensuring their chicken meat quality and performance is the utmost concern of farmers and feed millers as well.
NUTRITIONAL ROLE OF LIPIDS
Lipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of animal living cells. Lipids is a material which reserves energy for body. Each gram of lipids supply 9 Kcal. Starter-chick requires below 4% of oil in fed diet, finisher and layer chicken need below 5% while barnyard chicken is necessary to take above 5%. Usually, industrial feed formulated from 2 to 6% of vegetable oil which help to improves chicken meat quality and performances as well as reducing feed conversion ratio.
Lipids also supply source of essential fatty acids such as linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid to aid in metabolic processes. Besides, lipids help to dissolve A, D, E and K vitamins together with pigment for better body absorbent, that help to improve yellowish colors for chicken’s skin, grease and egg yolk as well. In addition, feed supplemented sufficient oil content can also protect feed pellets from dusts hence helping to prevent respiratory diseases.
MORE ABOUT CRUDE RICE BRAN OIL
Crude rice bran oil (CRBO) is extracted from raw rice bran - outer layers of rice kernel. CRBO offers large useful nutrients to the animal. The most importance of rice bran oil is rich in natural antioxidants such as E vitamin (tocopherols, tocotrienols), phenosterols especially gamma-oryzanol.
Global recent studies have showed that Gamma-oryzanol – the unique natural antioxidants derived from rice bran oil has four times of anti-oxidation effect compared to E vitamin.-oryzanol can help lower cholesterol, fight diseases, enhance the immune system, fight free radicals or against free radical form.
Cholesterol is necessary to make up cell wall and membranes, hormone balance and produce D vitamin and the bile acids that need to digest fat. However, the body needs only a limited amount of cholesrerol to meet its needs. When too much is present, especially LDL cholesterol (also called bad cholesterol), cause health problem. Gamma-oryzanol is reported in lowing intestinal and liver cholesterol then excreting from the body until balancing at safe cholesterol level.
CRBO has advantages in terms of nutritional values as well as competitive prices compared to other kinds of vegetable oil. Generally, many studies have been carried out to evaluate the benefits of CRBO supplementation for chickens.
RICE BRAN OIL IN CHICKEN’S DIETARY
Rice bran oil is one of the main lipid sources in broiler chickens dietary. Purushothaman et al (2000) reported that the body weight gain of starter-chicks was significantly high in CRBO diets. In his afterwards research by 2005, he recommended that using 3% CRBO in chicken feed intake gave higher efficiency on growth performance and lower feed conversion ratio.
This author also observed that the feed cost to produce 1 kg of live body weigh chicken meat was lowest at the starter-chicken supplemented 1% CRBO and finisher-chicken supplemented 4% CRBO. The experiment of Anitha (2006) also gave similar results, the inclusion of CRBO up to 3% in chicken is recommended which help for better growth performance and lower feed conversion ratio.
As the same opinions, Dung et al (2012) evaluated that layer hens supplement with 3% CRBO improved egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency. Albumin index and shell thickness ratio was highest in the layers diet supplemented with 3% CRBO. The feed cost supplemented with CRBO was increased, nevertheless, better benefits including eggs cost was found in this research.
Besides these mentioned advantages on chicken production, feed supplemented with CRBO is also considered as an altering element affecting cholesterol levels in chicken meat and eggs. Natural antioxidants only derived in rice bran oil, Gamma-oryzanol, have properties of lowering blood serum cholesterol as reported by Kahlo (1992a, 1992b), while reducing the absorbed cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (Patel and Naik, 2004). Dung et al (2012) reported that the supplementation from 2.5% to 3% CRBO in the layer diets could help to lower the cholesterol level in egg yolk from 200mg to 154mg and reduce cholesterol in every gram of egg yolk, i.e from 11.3mg to 9.26mg. Ramesh Kumar (2000) concluded that broilers fed CRBO gave low muscle cholesterol levels and strengthened high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Anitha (2006) gave a conclusion in chicken plasma cholesterol lowering when raising crude rice bran oil ratio from 1% to 5%.
Anitha, B., Moorthy, M., Viswanathan,K., 2006. Production Performance of Broilers Fed with Crude Rice Bran Oil. International Journal of Poultry Science 5: 1046-1052.
Berger, A., Rein, A., Schafer, D., Monnard, I., Gremaud, G., Lambelet, P., Bertoli, C., 2005. Similar cholesterol-lowering properties of rice bran oil, with varied gamma-oryzanol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. European Journal of Nutrition 44: 63-173.
Dung, N.N.X., Phuong, L.T., Suong, N.M., Manh,L.H., 2012. Effect of crude rice bran oil supplementation on performance, egg production and quality, plasma lipid and yolk cholesterol of laying hens; Proceedings of the International Conference "Livestock-Based Farming Systems, Renewable Resources and the Environment", 6-9 June 2012, Dalat, Vietnam.
Kahlon, T. S., Chow, F. I., Sayre, N. R., Betschart, A. A., 1992. Cholesterol lowering in hamsters fed rice bran at various levels, defatted rice bran and rice bran oil. Journal of Nutrition 122:513-519.
Kahlon, T. S., Chow, F. I., Sayre, R. N., Betschart, A. A.,1 992. Cholesterol-lowering in hamsters fed rice bran at various levels, defatted rice bran and rice bran oil. Journal of Nutrition122:513-519.
Patel, M., Naik, S. N., 2004. Gamma-oryzanol from rice bran oil: A review. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 63: 569-578.
Purushothaman, M.R., Vasan, P., Mohan, B., Ravi,R., 2005. Utilization of tallow and rice bran oil in feeding broilers. India Journal of Poultry Science 40: 175-178.
Purushothaman, M.R., Vasan,P., Ravi, R., Mohan, B., 2000. Effect of palm oil, rice bran oil and tallow obroiler production. Souvenir, Lead Papers an Research Abstracts in IPSACON. PPN 52: 104.
From: Tieu Tuyet Minh - Công ty TNHH Wilmar Agro Việt Nam (Cần Thơ).
Source: Dr. Huynh Thi Tu, Pham Minh Thong, Ngo Duy Quang
In rainy season
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